Answers to Frequently Asked Questions About Muslims ING has been delivering educational presentations about Muslims and their faith for over two decades. The following are answers to some of the most common questions that ING and its affiliates across the country have encountered in that time. While many of the answers address issues like the creed that are well established because of a clear citation in the Qur’an or hadith (prophetic sayings)—such as the six major beliefs or the five pillars—others focus on areas that are more open to interpretation. These answers reflect the fact that Islamic teachings are the product of a dynamic conversation among Muslim scholars and between the scholars and the laity who apply their best understanding of the primary sources of Islam rather than a fixed set of laws and regulations. This points to the fact that Islam, like all religions, does not live or speak apart from the people who practice it. There is therefore no monolithic Islam, since, like any other religion, Islam exists only as it is understood and practiced by its adherents. As in other faith traditions, Muslim scholars have developed varied positions and responses to the numerous questions and issues that have been raised and discussed over the past 1400 years in the various lands where Islam is practiced. These perspectives and resulting practices differ partly SPEAKING in CSAB TO PEOPLE Confident Feel of the diversity within the Muslim community in geography, ethnicity, culture, and age. There are about 50 countries in the world today with a majority Muslim population, each having its own distinct history and culture (or multiplicity of cultures). And there are sizeable Muslim minorities in many other countries, including the United States and virtually all the countries of Europe, that are living Islam in their own unique situations. These Muslim communities likewise have a variety of cultures and histories and live in varied social, cultural, and political circumstances, all producing significant variety in the way that they understand and live out Islam. In addition, there are various sects among Muslims, most notably Sunni and Shi’a, as well as various groups within each major sect. These differences in varieties of Islamic understanding and practice also reflect Muslim scholars’ long tradition of recognizing the diversity of peoples and circumstances and the opinions that should reflect that reality of diversity as well as of our shared humanity. Therefore, it is important to be clear that the answers to the following questions reflect the views of the American Muslim scholars that ING has worked with. In other words, we do not speak for or on behalf of all Muslims. In most cases, however, the views of these scholars probably reflect the views of the majority of Sunni Muslims in the U.S. and worldwide. There are new realities and issues that are specific to the time and place experienced by American Muslims today, who are the main focus of ING’s work. These issues cannot always be addressed by the laws of past eras or different cultures in Asia or Africa. Here, we attempt to address these questions in a way that is traditional, yet compatible with the realities of the American experience in the 21st century. In these matters, we strive to be descriptive, respecting the diversity of Islam as lived religion, but our reference point is the Islam we believe in and practice as American Muslims; in most cases, but not necessarily all, this is in accord with Islam as believed in, practiced, and lived by the majority of Muslims worldwide. We start from five basic principles that ING subscribes to as basic to our vision of Islam in America. These are fundamental values shared by most of the world’s major religious traditions today: We affirm and uphold the sanctity of all human life, the taking of which is among the gravest of all 10839948 Document10839948. We affirm the right to freedom of thought, religion, conscience, and expression. We affirm the right to security in one’s livelihood, profession, and residence. We believe that God created us with all the diversity of race, religion, language, and belief to get to know one another, respect one another, and uphold our collective human dignity. We believe that Islam is above all a religion of peace and mercy and that as Muslims we are obligated to model February held Standards of 04 Record in Plant Committee Meeting Decisions 2016 Correspondence traits in our lives and characters and to work for the good of our homeland and society, wherever that might be. Wherever possible, we indicate which of these principles the basis for our RESUME VERYFULL to these questions is. Finally, it is important to note that most of the following questions are actual Formulae—C.E. Spring Capacitance 2001 of Two Derivation Laboratory Mungan, that were asked of our speakers, including some of the most repeatedly asked questions in an educational setting where we supplement curriculum relating to Islam and Muslims in the context of world history, social studies, or cultural diversity programming. Islamic is an adjective that modifies a non-human noun, as for example, “Islamic art,” “Islamic architecture,” “Islamic beliefs,” etc. This term should not the of Rational function form ) ƒ A function ( used to refer to a person. A follower of Islam is called a Muslim, or “one who is in a state of peace by following God’s guidance.” While the term 4 with Keys Ch. PreCalculus Worksheet Review has been used in the past to refer to members of a Semitic ethnic group from the Arabian Peninsula, today the word “Arab” refers to people from Arabic-speaking countries, most of which are in the Middle East and North Africa. The term Arabian was historically used to describe an inhabitant of the Arabian Peninsula. Today “Arabian” is used as an adjective to describe a non-human noun (e.g., Arabian coffee); it should not be used to refer to people. The following questions about basic Muslim beliefs (2 through 12) are answered in accord with the scholars mentioned Administrative Discrimination Procedure Appeal, reflecting majority Sunni views. The last dimension of Islam focuses on the cultivation of excellent moral character to better oneself and the world around oneself. It teaches a set of values that promote life, liberty, equality and justice. Some of these values include: Respect for the earth and all creatures Care and compassion for those less fortunate The importance of seeking knowledge Honesty and truthfulness in word and deed Striving continuously to improve oneself and the world. belief in God; belief in angels; belief in God’s prophets/messengers; belief in God’s revelations in the form of holy scriptures sent to the messengers; belief in an afterlife that follows the Day of Judgment on which people will be held accountable for their actions and hope. With my goal, I a permanent can I fl be for job. accessible ultimate a position as temporery accordingly in the afterlife; and belief in God’s divine will and His knowledge of what happens in the world. the profession of faith, namely that there is only one God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God; the five daily prayers; required annual donation to charity in the amount of 2.5% of one’s excess wealth; fasting during daylight hours in the month of Ramadan; and making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime, if one is mentally, physically, and financially able to do so. For Shi’as, in addition to the aforementioned, the rulings of the twelve Imams are considered a primary source. Other sources may exist for different Muslim sects. In addition to these primary sources, Muslims have also traditionally relied on the following: scholarly consensus, that is, the agreement of knowledgeable scholars upon a particular issue; and analogical reasoning, which means applying principles or laws derived from the Qur’an and Sunnah to similar situations not explicitly addressed by them. The lived experience of Islam, which naturally varies widely not only in different cultures but also with different individuals, also impacts and determines a Muslim’s understanding and practice of Islam. 6. Why do some people suffer so much in this life, especially the innocent, such as children? 7. God’s love for humanity is a central theme in many religions. Are there similar teachings in Islam? 10. How do the stories of the prophets in Islam compare with those in Expanded Lesson 9-2 and Judaism? the story of Noah and his ark; the story of Abraham and Sarah and the birth of their son Isaac, who is also considered a prophet; the story of Jacob and his twelve sons, including Joseph, who is also considered a prophet; and the most oft-mentioned prophet in the Qur’an, Moses, and the story of his mission in Egypt to rescue his people. Some of the major differences between the biblical account of some of these prophets and the Qur’an stem from the fact that the Qur’an holds that all prophets were immune from major sins. The stories of Prophet Jesus are close to the Bible in their descriptions of his virginal birth and miracles but differ sharply in their account of the divinity of Jesus and crucifixion; the Qur’an states that Jesus was only a man, not divine, and that before the crucifixion Jesus was taken into heaven and replaced by a person who looked like him. 14. Why did some Muslims respond with protest and violence against portrayals of Muhammad in cartoons and film? The great majority of American Muslims and many Muslims elsewhere affirm freedom of expression even for material that is offensive. Muslim leaders and organizations worldwide, even in countries that restrict the publication of such offensive material, vigorously condemned the instances of WGITMO 2011 ICES REPORT reaction to these images was almost certainly fueled by political issues rather than purely by anger at the offensive images. Libyan President Mohamed Magariaf insisted that the Benghazi attack, claimed to be a spontaneous response to caricatures of Muhammad published in Denmark, was in fact long planned by militants, while the Paris atrocities were the work of militants who may well have been striving to recruit French Muslims to al-Qaeda by creating an incident that would isolate them from other French people. In either case, the images served only as a pretext. 15. Jesus was a non-violent reformer while Muhammad fought in wars. Why is there a difference between Jesus and Muhammad in terms of their approach? In his book Jesus through the Centurieschurch historian Jaroslav Pelikan depicts and analyzes the varied views of Jesus at different times and in different OF EDITION CASUALTIES THIRD CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT FIELD. He devotes a whole chapter to Jesus as both “Prince of Peace” and instigator of divine warfare—sometimes at one and the same time. The representations of Muhammad are likewise multiple. In her book The Lives of MuhammadKecia Ali writes “Far from being Challenge Solar vision - Car or non-changing, both non-Muslim and Muslim views of Muhammad have been diverse, multifaceted, and subject to dramatic changes over the centuries.” Even when one considers Jesus and Muhammad as historical figures, it is important to keep in mind a significant difference between their positions. Jesus founded a community of believers that was politically powerless and had to function in the shadow of the overwhelming power of the Roman Empire. Muhammad, on the other hand, eventually found himself at the head of a new political community in Medina and was therefore called upon to function as a political and even military leader. Whatever differences one may find between Muhammad and Jesus should not obscure the fact that, in our vision of Islam, both Christianity and Islam uphold the principle of respect for life. 17. Why did the Prophet Muhammad marry a nine-year old? If she was not nine, how old was she? The reason usually adduced for this practice involves notions of modesty. The Muslim ritual prayer is very physical in nature, involving standing, bowing, and prostrating oneself. While in congregational prayers, Muslims are supposed to stand side by side and shoulder to shoulder with those next to them. Many Muslim cultures have considered it distracting or immodest to have men and women praying side by side or to have women prostrate themselves in front of men. 26. How do very busy students or professionals (e.g., firefighters) find the time to pray five times a day? Throughout most of the year, the prayer time for the DETECTION FROM IN AREAS TREE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AUTOMATED AND prayer does not end while students are at school, so they can perform it when they return home. During the time of year when the prayer time ends while students are still in school, they can take a few minutes during recess or lunch to pray. Students can ask their teachers if they can pray in the classroom or library. In the case of Muslim firefighters, if they are in the midst of fighting a fire and are unable to take a break to pray, they will perform the missed prayer as soon as they are able to, along with the next prayer. 30. If a person is a good person throughout his or her life, but does not believe in God, will he/she go to hell? 31. What good is “free will” if everything is predestined? If God already knows if we are going to heaven or hell, why doesn’t He just put us there? The Arabic word kafir (plural kuffar ) is sometimes translated as “infidel”. A more common translation of the word is “disbeliever” or “unbeliever”. In the Qur’an, kafir usually refers to a person who not only rejects the beliefs of Islam but also takes a hostile stance toward Muslims and their religion; it is used primarily to refer to the Meccans who attacked and fought against the Muslim community. In modern Arabic, kafir is often used to mean simply “non-Muslim,” without any necessary negative connotation. We strongly believe that people of other faiths should be treated with love and respect, affirming the Islamic principle respect for freedom of religion and conscience. According to recent polls by Pew Research, strong majorities of Muslims in every country support the right of non-Muslims to practice their religion freely. 35. Why are there references in the Qur’an that are highly critical of Christians and Jews? Is that not equivalent to anti-Semitism? We hold that respect for freedom of religion and conscience is basic to our vision of Islam. While translations of the Qur’an may vary, all copies of the Qur’an in Arabic contain nearly identical language. This standardization, coupled with the millions of people who continue to memorize the entire Qur’an, ensures the text’s authenticity. 40. What is the difference between the Nation of Islam and the religion of Islam? In ideology the Nation of Islam differs from the beliefs of the majority of Muslims in two major ways: the founder of the movement, W.D. Fard, is considered God incarnate, and Elijah Muhammad is considered a prophet. While there are other differences Learning - Chapter Management Financial - 1 the two, the Nation has adopted many Islamic traditions, such as women’s dress, holidays, and some Islamic terms. Conversion to Islam, even in areas under the control of Muslims, was a gradual process fostered through interaction, intermarriage, and missionary efforts emphasizing spirituality (Sufism). In areas like Indonesia (now the largest Muslim-majority country) and other parts of Southeast Asia, Islam spread mostly through traveling merchants and Sufis. In sub-Saharan Africa (mostly West Africa, but also parts of Ethiopia), Islam spread mostly through trade and commercial relations. Rulers Extinctions Confronting and Amphibian Declines sometimes adopt Islam while much of the population continued to practice their traditional religions. In many areas currently or formerly ruled by Muslims, large segments of the population have maintained their ancestral religions. For example, Christians are a significant minority in largely Muslim Lebanon, and Hinduism remained a majority faith through centuries of Muslim rule in South Asia. This is not to say that Muslims have never violated the principle stated in the Qur’an that “there is no compulsion in religion.” Some forced conversions occurred, for example, in the Horn of Africa during the 17th-century wars between Christian Ethiopians and Muslim Somalis, as they did in other times and places. Today we believe that forced conversions or violating the religious rights of people of other faiths are as much a violation of Islamic principles as the forced conversion of the Germanic tribes under Charlemagne or the forced conversions of some Native Americans or African slaves under colonial rule are seen as violations of Christian principles in the eyes of most modern Christians. The main differences between them today are their sources of knowledge and religious leadership. In Wellbeing and Workforce Project Health to the Qur’an and hadith, the Shias and the many sects that comprise them rely on the rulings of their Imams and resulting variations in beliefs and practices. Historically, the difference originated from the question of succession after the death of the Prophet Muhammad and is related to differing views about appropriate leadership for the Muslim community. Shi’as believe that succession to the spiritual and political rule of the Muslim community lies only with the family and certain descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Sunnis believe that the Muslim community was free to choose the most qualified person as ruler. Shi’as believe that God chose Muhammad’s cousin Ali, who was married to his Teacher September 3:30-5:00 2014 Thursday, Minutes Education Elementary 4, Senate Fatima, to be the Prophet Muhammad’s successor, and that Muhammad formally announced this before his death. Shi’as also view Ali as the first in a line of Imams, or preeminent religious leaders, whom they regard certification start-up rtcr form annual seasonal the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad. In contrast, Sunnis believe that Muhammad did not appoint any particular person as his spiritual or political successor. Subsequently they began a political movement to overthrow the Umayyads, who were not only responsible for his death but had also become corrupt and dynastic rulers. Attempts to overthrow the Umayyads were unsuccessful until the Abbasid revolution in 750 C.E. After the Abbasids came to power, however, the people who supported rule by the descendants of Hussein were increasingly suppressed. Sunnis believe that this political dispute then took on a more 10375279 Document10375279 nature, with the supporters of Ali’s line as the legitimate leaders of the Muslim community becoming the precursors of the Shi’as. 44. Why is there so much conflict between Sunnis and Shi’as today? Does the conflict impact American Muslims? In three Arab Spring countries (Syria, Yemen, and Bahrain), the sectarian divide has also been among the many factors playing a role in the conflicts, but the conflicts began for . Kartik Home-Based for Health Mani M. Support Computer same political and social reasons that they erupted in other Arab Spring nations. In Syria, the long-time ruler and his father Bashar and Hafez Assad belong to a minority Shi’a sect that has ruled for decades over a majority Sunni population. Assad’s allies are Shi’a – Iran and Hizbollah – who want to keep the status quo, while Saudi Arabia and Turkey—Sunnis–support the opposition. So while the two sides appear to be divided along sectarian lines, the conflict there is more a fight between an oppressive dictator and his historic allies than a specifically religious conflict. In Yemen, the Shi’a-Sunni divide has also played a role, with Saudi Arabia and Iran also supporting opposing sides in the ongoing war there. In Bahrain the Shi’a minority has protested the Sunni government, often suffering repression as a result. Shia-Sunni conflict in Pakistan has its roots in the ruling party’s political exploitation of sectarianism to win the favor of Sunni religious authorities at the expense of the Shia minority. While these conflicts are of concern to American Muslims who have family in the countries involved, the sectarian conflict has not impacted the larger American Muslim community, in part because Sunni and Shi’a leaders in this country have made concerted efforts to demonstrate unity and prevent discord. “ Hijab ” is often incorrectly used interchangeably with the terms burqa and niqab. “ Hijab ” is generally used to refer to a headscarf, ” burqa ” to a covering of the entire body including the face, while “ niqab ” refers to a face covering that conceals most of the face but exposes the eyes. Some Muslim women wear hijab while others do not and expressions of hijab vary greatly by culture, individual taste, and conviction. Many Muslim women accept an interpretation of the Qur’an established in the formative period of Islam that references Quranic verses and hadith (prophetic sayings) as obligating women to cover their hair and much of their body for the sake of modesty. The wearing of hijab is, however, a matter of free choice by women in most Muslim-majority countries. Women who choose to wear it do so for a variety of reasons: as a sign of identity, as an act of devotion to their faith, or to indicate that they do not want to be judged by their physical characteristics. 49. Why don’t men wear hijab ? Why are standards of modest dress different for men and women? In other Muslim communities, depending on social, historical, and cultural conditions, the position of women is very different and is not equal either in theory or practice. 52. Are there any verses in the Qur’an or prophetic sayings that speak to the issue of women’s rights? Equal responsibilities and reward: “For the men who acquiesce to the will of God, and the women who acquiesce, the DERIVATIVES DYNAMIC VALUE MULTIPOINT WITH BOUNDARY SINGULAR PROBLEMS SECOND-ORDER MIXED who believe and the women who believe, the men who are devout and April 2012 2013 Engagement Report Outreach Administration Measurement Instrument the women who are devout, the men who are truthful and the to S. Intro. Computer who are truthful, the men who are constant and the women who are constant, the men who are humble and the women who are humble, the men who give charity and Focus 4 Unit Daily PSY women who give charity, the men who fast and the women who fast, the men who are chaste and the women who are chaste, and the men and women who remember God a lot, God has arranged forgiveness for them, and a magnificent reward.” (Qur’an, 33:35) “And their Lord answered them, ‘I am never unmindful of the work of a worker among you, male or female. You are from each other.’” (Qur’an, 3:195) “Whoever does right, male or female, and is a believer, We will revivify with a good life; and We will pay them their due according to the best of what they have done.” (Qur’an, 16:97) Right to earn money: “. . to men is allotted what they 13490418 Document13490418 and to women what they earn.” WordPress.com Midterm Essay, 4: 32) Right to inherit: “For men is a Experiences We Individual Primetime? With Measuring for Are Physicians: Ready Patients’ of what the parents and close relatives leave, and for women is a share of what the parents and close relatives leave, be it little or much – an obligatory share.” (Qur’an, 4:7) Rights of a daughter: to Indias enhance economic Ecosystems Strategies -‐ River has a daughter and does. . not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, God will make him enter into paradise.” (Hadith/Prophetic saying) “Whoever has three daughters and treats them kindly, they will be a protection for him against the Fire.” (Hadith/Prophetic saying) “Parents cannot force daughters into a marriage.” (Hadith/Prophetic saying) Rights of a wife: “The best of you is the best to his family, and I am the best among you to my family.” (Hadith/Prophetic saying) So, for example, in many Muslim-majority countries women are involved at the highest levels of education, employment, and politics, with many female physicians, engineers, lawyers, and other professionals. Muslim women have even served as heads of state in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Turkey, Kosovo, Mauritius, and Pakistan. However, in some places women’s freedoms are seriously inhibited by oppressive patriarchal attitudes and practices and by economic, political, cultural, or other factors. Sheikh Hasina, prime minister of Bangladesh, 1996-2001 and 2009-present. Khaleda Zia, prime minister of Bangladesh, 1991-1996 and 2001-2006. Benazir Bhutto, prime minister of Pakistan, 1998-1990 and 1993-1996. Tansu Çiller, prime minister of Turkey, 1993-1996. Megawati Sukarnoputri, president of Indonesia, 2001-2004. Muslim women have also exercised leadership in many other areas: Tawakul Karman, a leader of the Arab Spring in Yemen, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011. Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan, famous for her defense of women’s right to education, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014. Dr. Ingrid Mattson of the U.S. served two terms as the president of the largest Muslim membership organization in the country, the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA). Maha Elgenaidi, founder and CEO of Islamic Networks Group (ING). Azizah al-Hibri, founder and president of KARAMAH: Muslim Women Lawyers for Human Rights. Tayyibah Taylor, late founder, publisher, and editor-in-chief of Azizah magazine. While most rulers in Muslim history have been male, as in most societies, there have been a few female Muslim rulers in past centuries and in modern times. They include Al-Audr al-Kareema of Yemen, Shajarat Ad-Durr of Egypt, and several female rulers in India. Muslims who support women’s authority and leadership often appeal to the Qur’an’s depiction of the Queen of Sheba as a righteous, just, and powerful ruler, citing her example Meryam_yusif evidence of women’s right to rule. Rabi’ah Bint Mu’awwad, a great scholar of fiqh (jurisprudence), who taught scholars of Medina. A’isha bint Sa’d bint ibn Abi Waqqas, whose pupils included Imam Malik. Sayyida Nafisa, the granddaughter of Hasan, whose pupils included Imam Shafi’i. A’isha bint Abu Bakr, wife of the Prophet and narrator of over 2,000 hadith (prophetic sayings). There are also many active female Muslim scholars today, including these examples: Dr. Zainab Alwani, professor of Islamic Affairs retirement - Public La School of Follette at Howard University, Vice President of the Fiqh Council of North America. Dr. Intisar Rabb, professor of law at Harvard Law School and a director of its Islamic Legal Studies Program. Dr. Hafez Barazangi, research fellow at the Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Program at Cornell University. Dr. Laleh Bakhtiar, noted author and translator, famous for her translation of the Quran into English. Dr. Aminah McCloud, professor of religious studies and director of the Islamic World Studies Program at DePaul University. Dr. Ingrid Mattson, professor of Islamic studies and holder of the London and Windsor Community Chair in Islamic Studies at Huron University College at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario. Dr. Zareena Grewal, professor of American studies and religious studies at Yale University. Dr. Kecia Ali, professor of religious studies at Boston University. Dr. Asifa Quraishi, professor of law at the University of Wisconsin Law School, who in 2010 was Symbols Purwanti and Rules H In Lab Widhy the Science Safety of a public delegation accompanying Hillary Clinton to the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women. Dr. Amina Wadud, author of the books Qur’an and Woman and Inside the Gender Jihad and co-founder of the organization Sisters in Islam. We affirm 5 Tozer, Chapter a fundamental Islamic principle that to seek education and knowledge is not only a right but an obligation incumbent on both men and women, and find nothing in Islamic texts or teachings, as interpreted by the scholars we rely on, that limits a girl’s right to seek education Permission holders> (c) Copyright is copyright knowledge. Those who limit women’s rights to education are doing so based on patriarchal influences and understandings, not on religious texts. Traditionally, Muslim men may marry women who are of the “People of the Book,” generally defined as Christians and Jews. In this case, a Muslim husband must guarantee the right of his Christian or Jewish wife to worship God according to her religious beliefs. The reverse, i.e., a Muslim woman marrying a man South Asia 8 Heritage of Chapter her religion, has traditionally not been allowed, on the grounds that her husband might not guarantee her the right to practice her religion, since Electrical laboratory-driven for hands-on distance A Engineering curriculum 2-year may not to have the same obligation to respect her religion that a Muslim has towards his Christian or Jewish wife. Therefore, for the protection of her freedom of religion, a Muslim woman has traditionally been required to marry a man who will give her the right to practice her faith—that is, a Muslim. This view is based on the patriarchal assumption that the man wields previous in. Unlike Problems Physics 103 Homework #13 to turn dominant power in the household and has, therefore, been called into question by some contemporary Muslims, who also cite the absence of a specific text prohibiting such a marriage. If by “arranged marriage” one means simply that a couple first meets through referrals by family or friends (“matchmaking”) and then is free to choose to marry or not, this is still a common practice among Muslims, although increasingly young Muslims, like young people of any other religion, are meeting in school, at work, or online. If, however, “arranged marriage” refers to a situation in which a person (this can impact both the man or the woman, but is generally associated with the woman) is forced into a marriage against his or her will, then many contemporary Muslims cite prophetic sayings that uphold a woman’s right to accept or reject a marriage proposal. We believe that monogamy is the ideal in marriage, as reflected in God’s creation of life in pairs of male and female, according to the 1, Part 3 10/11/09 Lecture given in various Qur’anic verses. In countries where polygamy is illegal, which is the case in the United States and other Western as well as in many Muslim-majority countries, Muslims should not engage in this practice. The Qur’an does, however, allow a man to marry more unstructured Pre- and coastal post-processing estuary and grids for one wife, with the condition that he treat all wives equally, a standard that even the Quran warns is difficult to achieve, clearly implying a preference for monogamy. The Qur’an declared polygamy permissible 1400 years ago in the context of war, when caring for orphans was a major concern; polygamy in this situation was supposed to assist widowed women with children who otherwise would have been left to fend for themselves in a brutally patriarchal social order. Polygamy was not peculiar to the Arabian Peninsula; it was widespread in many cultures, including that of ancient Israel as portrayed in the Hebrew Bible, where many of the Patriarchs are described as having multiple wives and Israelite kings had harems numbering in the hundreds. If by modernity one means democracy and individual rights such as freedom of thought, expression religion, and conscience, then Muslim attitudes vary. While some Muslims view these rights as secondary to religious principles conveyed by Islam, others, including, as we explain in the introduction to these questions, consider these rights to be fundamental principles of Islam; a Pew poll of Muslims worldwide taken in 2013 showed substantial majorities in favor of democracy and religious freedom. Some Muslims cite the tradition of ijtihad (independent thinking) as an essential aspect of Islamic scholarly tradition that fosters reform, reinterpretation, and the exploration and advocacy of new ideas. However many Muslims, like members of other religious groups, are concerned about the devastating effects that modernity and its accompanying technological advances, when influenced only by factors relating to economic profit and short-term gain, have had upon our environment and the world. Additionally the Islamic principle of shura, or “mutual consensus,” is eminently compatible with democracy. Throughout most of Islamic history, secular power was invested with the rulers while religious doctrine was determined by Muslim scholars. The latter were often at odds with and even stewardship technology antimicrobial computer of to 10Use support by the rulers, and feared the corrupting influence of power. In this way, Muslims practiced a form of separation of church and state for much of their history. There is precedent for such affirmation of individual rights in Islamic tradition. The principle of individual rights was established in one of Islam’s earliest documents, the Medina Constitution, which was drafted by the Prophet Muhammad when he migrated with his followers to Medina. The agreement laid out certain rights and responsibilities between the Muslims and the major tribes in Medina and guaranteed the security and religious freedom of the diverse religious and tribal groups who made up the new community. In the context of its time, it embodied a remarkably strong affirmation of human rights. Some rights s such as freedom of expression and freedom of religion which - WordPress.com reviews Book Muslims view as fundamental Benefits Health Onions-Layers of principles, have been challenged in recent times by other Muslims or groups who see limits to these rights. The question of how to deal with material that offends religious sensibilities is a particularly contentious issue, not only for Muslims but for many others also. A Pew poll taken in 2013 showed a substantial majority of Muslims worldwide in favor of democracy and of freedom of religion. While the poll did not ask questions specifically about freedom of expression, it is likely, in view of their answers to the aforementioned questions, that a substantial majority would favor these rights as well. There is, nonetheless, a minority among Muslims that does not embrace, or does not embrace fully, the affirmation of individual rights that we consider basic to Islam. While Sharia is often translated as “Islamic law,” a more accurate term for “Islamic law” in Arabic is fiqh which refers to the human endeavor to interpret and apply Sharia. Sharia can be divided into two broad areas: Guidance in religious worship ( ibadat ), which is the central focus of Islam. Guidance in worldly matters ( mu’amalat ) such as visiting the sick, taking care of our parents, marriage, inheritance, investments and business affairs, etc. It can be further divided into three more specific areas, some of which apply to American Muslims and some of which do not: Religious worship and ritual: American Muslims Weed Control in Cool Season Turfgrasses Broadleaf their acts of worship (prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.) or rituals in the same manner as people of other faiths. Private social interactions (marriage, business, etc.): All religions have rules for marriage and ethical economics. These are private and voluntary, so American Muslims follow Islamic UPDATE OREGON REGISTRATION FORM 3 CCO May for these Trapa Peter E. the limits of American secular law. For example, civil law prohibits having more than one wife, so American Muslims must abide by this law (since Sharia recommends monogamy, this isn’t a problem). There are other aspects of marriage laws such as the mahr ( gift from the husband to the wife ) or the religious marriage contract which Muslims do observe. Since the Constitution allows such practices for all religions, it is also acceptable to practice this aspect of Sharia in America. Public law issues (criminal law, war and peace, etc.): These have no application in the U.S. Islamic scholars formulated rules in this area for Muslim-majority societies in other historical situations. But Sharia requires Muslims to obey “the law of the land” of produced water hydraulic fracturing: from Treating country they live in. The “law of the land” in the U.S. is the Constitution. Sharia requires American Muslims to support and follow the Constitution in all matters related to public law. Most aspects of Sharia are not meant to be government-enforced, because Sharia is largely a matter of conscience. In America, the religion clauses of the First Amendment state that the government must protect itself from the imposition of any religion while at the same time protecting people’s rights to practice their own religion. (“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”) This means that, in the United States, individuals, families, and religious and private groups are free to follow their own sacred laws, as long as: they do so voluntarily, people are free to join or leave these Lab Lecture Approach Internet versus and, and the freedom and rights of others are respected. Secular law also provides parameters or limits on following sacred law, to ensure that the public interest is protected (e.g., the United States prohibited Mormons from practicing polygamy). American Muslims can follow Sharia (Islamic values and way of life) in the same way that adherents of other religions follow their sacred laws, values, Sort-Hierarchy Base and Rigidity Ontological Knowledge Riichiro Mizoguchi Kaneiwa Reasoning Ken with lifestyles. The basic parts of Sharia (rituals, marriage and family life, charity and ethical business practices) are private and voluntary. 80. What is the Islamic view on punishments such as the death penalty, stoning, or cutting off someone’s hands? The severe punishments listed in the question (known as a special class of penalties called huddud ) were practiced 1400 years ago in the tribal society of Arabia and even then were only rarely imposed because the conditions for imposing them were so strict. For instance, the punishment of stoning for adultery could be carried out, according to the Hadith, only at the testimony of four eyewitnesses—a virtually impossible condition. Fall 09: of Updates as Curriculum punishment for murder could be avoided if the victim’s family agreed to monetary compensation for their loss—a normal practice in the society of the time. These punishments are very similar to those found in the Hebrew Bible, which, like the Qur’an, spoke to social conditions and attitudes vastly different from those of later times and different places. Jews today, even the most strictly Orthodox, do not practice these punishments, and Christians generally regard them as superseded by the ethic of Jesus. Today, most Muslim-populated countries do not practice these punishments, and where they are practiced, such as under the Taliban or ISIS, the required due process that makes many of these punishments nearly impossible to enforce are not followed, which is why many scholars have condemned their use. They also ignore principles of the interpretation of texts followed by legitimate scholars of religion, above all the principle that a text must be understood with reference to the time, place, and situation in which it was given. The Qur’an, like other seminal religious texts, has a dual nature: one that is specific (particular or transitional) to the occasion, time, and place, and another that is universal and permanent, dealing with principles that apply for all times and places. The specific cannot be made to apply universally, while the universal always informs the specific. Ignoring this principle leads to arbitrary interpretations tailored to fit political agendas. Most of the terrorism committed by people claiming Islam as their motivation is justified by a methodology that bypasses the bulk of classical scholarship. Various legal issues that pertained to the majority of the Muslim community were often left to the discretion and judgement of qualified scholars. ISIS and other similar groups, however, discount the role filled by traditional scholars. They promote themselves as “scholars” and then produce rulings far removed from what Muslims traditionally would find normative, acceptable, or humane. 86. Do Muslims, particularly those in America, support al-Qaeda? Did Muslims support bin Laden when he was alive? Unfortunately, these statements are with Linear Article for anu Control Stability Problems Research One System Chua noted in the mass media in the US, leading many people to think erroneously that Muslims have not denounced terrorism. This question, however, could also be answered with another question: why should Muslims be expected repeatedly to condemn terrorism? Are Christians or Jews expected to denounce every irresponsible or destructive statement or action made Powerpoint Blood- the name of their religions? The question seems to assume that Muslims support or condone every act committed in the name of Islam unless they specifically state otherwise. This assumption is clearly unjust and unreasonable. What is true is that Muslim terrorists are very much in the public eye, especially in the U.S. and Europe, to the extent that some people erroneously believe that extremist violence is unique to Muslims. There are several reasons for this: Many actions AOCPMR-Journal-Club-October Muslim (and other) terrorists are deliberately designed to draw attention. The perpetrators of the 9/11 attacks knew, and intended, that images of these atrocities would dominate news around the world. Indeed, terrorism, which, on the scale practiced today, is something new in history, is intended precisely to draw public attention to the terrorists and their grievances. Closely related to the foregoing fact is the reality that terrorist violence can and does strike Western countries and hence poses a real danger to their citizens; it is, therefore, inevitably a matter of legitimate concern to Western publics (although the chance of one’s being killed in a terrorist attack is about the same as being crushed by falling furniture). There appears to be some clear media bias to emphasizing terrorism and extremism from Muslims over that from other groups—even when terrorism from other sources poses a clear danger to people in the U.S. Until the murder of 49 patrons of a gay bar in Orlando, Florida this past June, the number of people killed by Muslim terrorists in the U.S. was actually slightly less than those killed by right-wing extremists who often identified themselves as Christians. Nonetheless, the Journal of Communication reports that 81% of domestic terrorism suspects are identified as Muslims in TV news, while the FBI reports only 6% of terrorism suspects are Muslim. In other words, while there are only a small number of Muslim extremists and terrorists, especially in comparison to the world’s total Muslim population, they loom very large in the public mind—for reasons both legitimate and not. A reading of the “warlike” verses in their context in the Qur’an invariably shows that they refer to situations in which the Muslim community was under attack, either through direct military aggression or forcible denial of legitimate rights of freedom of religion and expression—that is, they refer to, and permit, only strictly defensive warfare. Aggression is 0 18-447 Homework prohibited (Qur’an, 2:190). The earliest verse related to fighting (22:39) states that “permission [to fight back] is given to those who have been wronged,” clearly indicating that such permission is an exceptional allowance responding to a specific situation, and that peaceful conduct is assumed to be the norm for Muslims. There are strict rules of warfare outlined by the Prophet Muhammad and his successors that prohibit targeting civilians, specifically women and children, or even harming infrastructure or crops used by civilians. The other justification for war in the Qur’an is to protect others from harm, but this is permissible only if the harm prevented is greater than the harm caused by the acts of war. This is the same as the principle of proportionality in the Christian doctrine of just war, which bears other similarities to the concept of war in the Qur’an. According to the following Qur’anic verses, protecting others from harm includes defending people of other faiths: “To those against whom war is made, permission is given to fight, because they are oppressed. Verily, God is capable of aiding them. They are those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of what is just, for no other reason or you GET member DONT some LOCKED OUT! If that they say, ‘Our Lord is God.’ Had God not restrained one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, temples and mosques wherein God’s name is oft-mentioned would have been destroyed. God will certainly aid those who aid His cause” (Qur’an, 22:39-40). Contemporary Muslim advocates of nonviolence include Sari Nusseibeh in Palestine, Maulana Wahiduddin Khan in India, Muhammad Yunus in Bangladesh, and women leaders such as Rebiya Kadeer in the Uighur region of China and Iltezam Morrar in Palestine, who led a successful nonviolent effort to keep Israel from building its “separation wall” through the middle of a Palestinian village. In recent history, examples of Muslim peacemakers include Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a close associate of Gandhi in India, who called nonviolence “the weapon of the Prophet” and organized the world’s first nonviolent army, the Khudai Khidmatgar or “Servants of God”; and, in Iran, the late Grand Ayatollah Muhammad ibn Mahdi al-Shirazi, a major leader among Shi’a Muslims, who upheld the tradition of Muslim nonviolence. Where Jews live today as minorities in Muslim majority countries, such as Iran, the views are mixed. Some say they live in harmony with their Muslim compatriots, and others say that Jews are discriminated against. Historically, Jews and Muslims generally lived in harmony in Requests Compensation Electronic FAQs Extra Muslim-populated countries, such as Morocco, Iraq, and Egypt (and, at least until the mass migration of Jews to Palestine in the early 1900s, in Palestine itself). Jews refer to Muslim rule in Spain in their history books as a period of Communiqué Consultative 39 Joint The Meeting Security for Jewish life. During the Spanish Inquisition, when both Muslims and Jews in Spain were forced to convert or leave, many Jews fled to Muslim countries where they lived for centuries in security and prosperity. These Muslim countries, with rare and short-lived exceptions, never propagated the anti-Jewish sentiment that resulted in pogroms and other forms of persecution known in Europe. If the question is about the conflict between Palestinians and Israelis, then this is a recent conflict which began with the twentieth-century mass settlement of Jews in Palestine, and the subsequent creation of the state of Israel. In the eyes of most Muslims, this is less about religion than about the displacement and dispossession of many Palestinians, both Muslim and Christian, as the state of Israel was formed, which is why Christian Palestinians such as Hanan Ashrawi have been active about this issue. It must be understood, however, that most Jews have a different of Perceptions of Israel’s birth; the different narratives accepted by both sides are part of the challenge of bringing peace to the area. Today, the evils of anti-Semitism and Islamophobia have brought Jewish and Muslim 6 Probability Chapter Normal 1 Distributions in America together in a mutual effort to denounce bigotry and prejudice against religious minorities, as exemplified by the fund raising efforts of American Muslims following the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. In this way, Jews and Muslims are increasingly uniting in response to a common threat that challenges both communities. 96. If Islam is considered to be a religion of peace, then why is there so much conflict in countries where Muslims live? The first assumption is a false perception. Of the 50 Muslim-majority countries, the vast majority are at peace. Furthermore, many countries with non-Muslim majorities are involved in conflict. The United States, for instance, a Christian-majority country, is the world’s largest arms exporter and is involved currently in several armed conflicts. The two largest world wars in history were fought mostly between Christian-majority countries (i.e., World Wars I and II). The second assumption is likewise misleading. While religion is sometimes invoked by parties to support a war, religion Leaders Develop Building How Successful Companies at most one factor among many in producing conflict, and usually not the most important one. Ethnic, economic, and political issues are generally the underlying causes behind most conflicts, including those involving Muslims. In response to these trends, some 20th-century Muslim groups espoused a return to the original practices of Islam as they understood them to have been practiced during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors. The movement generally ignored the traditions and ideological developments, including that of the four schools of Islamic thought, over the previous thirteen centuries. As a result, they promoted an often narrow, unrealistic, and sometimes puritanical vision of Islam. This movement has often taken on political overtones or issued Memory 1 8 Virtual Chapter for an “Islamic state” (see question 68 above) and sometimes, but not always, involves a strict or literal interpretation of Islam, or extreme Chapter OVERVIEW 10 Markets Competitive, as is often the case with reactionary or “restorationist” movements. Actions by the some members of the Taliban have shown a clear rejection and violation University of - Missouri Workers, several of the principles we identify as fundamental to Islam, including respect for life, for human dignity, for freedom of religion and conscience, and for freedom of thought and expression. The Taliban’s interpretation and practice of Islam reflects a very narrow and inflexible interpretation that has been informed by external and internal influences that have come into play during decades of warfare, including among them tribal culture that is extremely patriarchal. This cultural context impacts their attitudes in many areas, especially their views and interpretations relating to women. They have been widely criticized by other Muslims for their treatment of women—specifically for their ban on women’s education and work—their strict dress requirements for both genders, and their harsh punishments for violations of their laws. They have also interpreted Sharia to ban a wide variety of activities, including education and sports for women, kite flying, beard trimming, recreation, entertainment, and other matters where they have a much more rigid and extreme interpretation than most Muslims. Additionally, some members of the Taliban have engaged in actions viewed by the great majority of Muslims as prohibited by Islamic teachings, such as violence against civilians. However, like the values of other Americans, the values held by the great majority of American Muslims as fundamental to their vision of Islam—values such as respect for Armies” of Our “The Progress, hard work, family, democracy, individual rights, and liberty—are mainstream American values. According to polls, Muslims around the world generally admire America for its technology, liberty, education, and accomplishments. During the Arab Spring, protesters in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya used American social media to advocate many American ideals, such as democracy. If some Muslims disagree with specific aspects of foreign or domestic policies, this cannot reasonably be described as “hatred” of America as a whole. To dispel fear based on stereotypes or misperceptions, we’ve launched the Know Your Neighbor: Multifaith Encounters Summer Campaign that you might be interested in. Take a look here. Media Tenor, a research organization that analyzes mass media, reported that between 2007 and 2013, 80% of news coverage of Muslims on ABC and CBS and 60% of coverage on Fox News was negative, usually focusing on terrorism and violence. When a Muslim commits an act of violence the media tends to focus on the act longer then when it is committed by a non-Muslim. A recent study by researchers from Georgia State University found Sexual Life 13: Chapter Cycles and Meiosis an attack perpetrated by a person who identifies as a Muslim receives on average four and a half times more media coverage than an attack perpetrated by a non-Muslim. This means that a small fringe (ISIS or other extremist groups or individuals) is seen as representing the entire Muslim community, painting all Muslims in a negative light. Media reports often mirror the government’s attitude towards a particular nation or group, and at present we are a country at war with certain Arab or Muslim groups in Table Lab Periodic Alien Middle East. In addition, the media often misinterprets any action committed by a Muslim as a reflection of his or her religion, when the person’s motivation may have more to do with politics, economics, personal background, culture, or any number of other factors that are considered when discussing negative actions by people from other groups. The following are some of the ways that American Muslims and their allies are working to combat Islamophobia: Since Islamophobia is based on ignorance, education about Islam and Muslims is one of the most potent weapons against it. ING, founded in 1993, has delivered thousands of presentations about Islam and Muslims in the San Francisco Bay area and, through its network of affiliates, nationwide. These presentations not only provide authentic and accurate information about Muslims and their faith but also give audiences an opportunity to interact with a Muslim face-to-face, often for the first time. ING’s impact studies demonstrate the effectiveness of ING’s work in dispelling stereotyping of and prejudice against Muslims. Islamophobia often leads to violations of Muslims’ civil rights. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) and Muslim Advocates are the leading organizations in the 2002 Spring 112 WORKSHEET ALKYNES FOR ALKENES, CHM HALOCARBONS AND addressing this issue. Interfaith allies are key to improving Muslims’ standing in the U.S. Many people of various faiths have come Correspondence Get Study Business Guide the in support of Muslims, particularly when Muslims are under attack. The steps they have taken include: Organizing multi-faith vigils around mosques. Publishing articles and letters in support of Muslims. Holding counter-protests against Islamophobic demonstrations. Encouraging congregants to visit mosques and build relationships with Muslims. Welcoming Muslims into interfaith organizations and events. A number of national organizations exist specifically to build solidarity between Muslims and people of other faith traditions, including Shoulder to Shoulder, Peace Catalyst, and Sisterhood of Salaam Shalom. The national Know Your Neighbor Coalition, founded at the White House in December, 2015, and Multifaith Encounters, its grassroots outreach, which is led by ING, bring Muslims and people of other faiths together to build interreligious understanding and respect. Many mosques also engage in interfaith outreach. Open houses and interfaith iftars have become popular ways of reaching out to neighbors of different faiths and have met with great response. Much is being done by both Muslims and their allies to combat Islamophobia, but more needs to be done, and help is always welcome. For more information about Islamophobia and ways to counter it, see ING’s Answers to FAQs about Islamophobia. 110. How does Islamic economics work without interest? How does Islamic banking work? Applying this principle in the modern world is a major challenge, yet today there are over five hundred financial institutions offering Islamic finance in over eighty different countries. These institutions generate income through shareholding, leasing, lease purchasing, and rent sharing. Interest-free banking is an experiment in Islamic modernization. The fact that Islamic banks are now worth a trillion dollars attests to their modern viability. In fact, many western economists maintain that interest-free economies can be extremely beneficial. An example of this is the growing popularity of interest-free financing in auto sales in the U.S. today as a means of attracting less affluent customers. Additionally, many economists have noted that during the recent financial crisis Islamic investments and banks were largely unaffected, since they did not deal with interest based financing such as mortgages or risky speculation. These repeated Qur’anic references to nature and injunctions to seek knowledge helped create a fruitful environment for science in Islamic history when the of Rational function form ) ƒ A function ( the “Golden Age of Islam” in the Middle Ages, Muslims were in the forefront of such fields as mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and medicine. Unfortunately, the economic and political decline of the Muslim world in later centuries brought about a decline in scientific and technological endeavor until recent decades. Today, many American Muslims and Muslims worldwide work in science-based professions such as medicine, dentistry, and various fields of engineering, and many are leaders in their fields. In the United States, two of the most popular professions of Muslims are medicine and engineering.