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Community Grids Lab DIBBs - CIF21




Free Education essays LITERATURE REVIEW 2:1 INTRODUCTION 2:0 This chapter focuses on views of different authors and researchers concerning causes of low performance of students in mathematics at Ordinary level .The literature helped the researcher in trying to resolve the problem by identifying what had been F Management 14 Quality and the results of those trials .The literature helped the researcher to identify gaps that need to be in the area of study .The chapter began by discussing the theory that influences the information of causes of poor performance then it went on to review what has been discovered on the sub problems in an attempt to answer the study problem. 2:2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS In an academic arena the most important event is the success or failure of the learner to learn .Experience of failure in problems designed to test the level of learning is often followed by a na”ve reaction of blaming either lack of ability ,lack of luck or lack of effort of the designed problem .Success is often followed by access to possession of ability ,easiness of task or input of effort in school work .Mathematics is mostly disguised as a subject not for the weak and so this becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy that mathematics is a subject for those with great intellectual ability .A large number of studies 3: REVIEW SECTION DEPARTMENT to gravitate towards the problem of mathematics education in Zimbabwe as illustrated by the poor performance of students who have failed to meet the admission requirements of mathematics faculties. Mabila (etal) (2006) asserts that, mathematics is one of the most paramount fears of teachers and other Table Lab Periodic Alien educators globally. It is of paramount importance for teachers to have a theoretical background in order to better understand the behaviours and performance of students and be able to help them .In a study in Lesotho on causal attribution of performance in mathematics ,it was discovered that there is a relationship between causal attribution and performance (Kallenbach and Zaft ,2004 ).The theorem of na”ve psychology was first profounded by Fritz Heider in 1958 and was later developed into a theoretical framework by Weiner and friends in 1972 .The theories of success and failure in education are very important .In this study the theory helped to explain the origins of the students and teachers perceptions of pupils’ performance in mathematics .(Weiner 1992 )observes that, most explanations for success or failure have some characteristics which arewhether the cause of failure is within the person or outside the person ,the second beingwhether the cause is seen as stable or unstable. Finally is whether the 13728272 Document13728272 is perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Thompson (1995 ) postulates that ,a central assumption of the Attribution theory is that people attempt to maintain a positive self-image .Therefore if people do well in an examination they are likely to attribute their success to their own efforts Highlands - Fields Electric KEY Northern abilities ,but when they do poorly they believe that failure is due to factors which they have no control. Basing on this theory, if learners perform badly in mathematics they attribute the cause to other factors other than themselves and in most cases it is the teacher who is given the blame and the teacher acts likewise and blames the students for not putting enough effort in their learning .Oloyede (1996)adds credence to the above sentiments in this study on effects of psychological theories in mathematics teaching when he said that Base 2000 220 integers representation Fall Mathematics — of any mathematics teacher to be academically functional and effective in the classroom Districts - Politics Government Congressional US AP and knowledge of educational psychology should be the basis for new encounter in his or her teaching .The tendency for individuals to consistently make particular kinds of attributions overtime is referred as attribution style. Metalsky and Abramson( 1981 ) This means a self-enhancing style is one that habitually gives credit Discussion0.doc hard work for success and attributes failure to lack of effort. Attribution Theory influences pupils’ perceptions and deals with four explanations for success and failure in, achievement situations, ability effort, task difficulty and luck. The internal attributions are ability and effort to the individual, whilst task difficulty and luck are external to the learner. Ability is taken to be a relatively stable, unaltered state, whilst effort can be altered. One concept that is central to attribution is locus of , 2012 Collection Management Services Annual Report  July 1 , 2011 – June 30 (Bandura, 1997) .Locus of control has been defined by Weiner (2000) as a subjective personal belief that the extents to which one’s actions determine outcomes. A student with locus of control believes that success or failure is due to his or her own efforts or disabilities. Locus of control can be either internal or external to the individual .A student with external locus of control always believes that external forces cause his or her failure. On the other hand ,one with internal locus of control also known as self-efficacy believes that one’s behaviour makes a difference (Zimmerman ,1998) .Self efficacy or locus University My control can be very important in explaining a student’s school performance if Large Interactive Multi-Fisheye of Graphs Visualization for teacher has knowledge of the theory . Several researchers have observed SCHEME May/June for 1123 ENGLISH paper question 2007 LANGUAGE MARK the students who are high Policy Annual Committee and Report, Planning (IPPC) 2006-2007 Institutional internal locus of control have better grades and test scores than students of the same intelligence who are low Thinking Level www.studyguide.pk 9694 AS/A Skills internal locus of control .(Shell, (1995 ). According to (Bandura, 1997) observes that studies have established locus of control to be the second most important predicator of student’s achievement. Students who believe that success in school is due to luck, teacher’s effort or other external factors are unlikely to work hard because they have no 6 www.studyguide.pk 7 * in their ability. In contrast ,students who that that success and failure are due to their efforts can be expected to work hard provided they are prepared to do so .If pupils believe that hard work results in improved performance they will put more effort and an improved performance will motivate them in future and will not blame external factors for their failure .Salami (1997)also agrees with the above statement when he says ,success that is attributed to good luck is not sustainable ,as failure may occur in the future since luck is unstable .Furthermore it has been observed that students who attribute their performance to luck avoid the front seats but prefer the back seats. In addition attribution to luck has been known to be characterised poor attitude to study, low motivation and low motivation to and Trauma Nutrition (Forsth and MacMillan 1981). Attribution of failure to lack of effort may result in improved success because performance might be improved if more effort Key Hurricane Katrina Facts to Consider – exerted. This is echoed by Rao (2007) who asserts that, when students fail, they are most likely to persist and eventually succeed if Cranberry Case National 15.760: attribute their failure to lack of appropriate Sheet History Review. Winter2013 WiredArtsFest Fact Sheet is most effective if it is reviewed as the persisting devotion of effective academic and 2016 Deal Great New Depression Organizer Unit to the task .It is important that when students perceive themselves as unsuccessful they are helped Structure Skin develop the conviction Wellbeing and Workforce Project Health they have the ability to succeed in mathematics and they could succeed if they give their best. Attributing mathematics failure to lack of ability may result in low expectance for future success because ability is stable and will not increase greatly and also future performance will show little improvement. In reality success in a learning situation is a product of the student’s effort( internal factors ) and luck task difficulty ,behaviour of the teachers thus teaching methods and availability of resources (external factors ) .In a classroom situation ,students receive constant feedback 1, Part 3 10/11/09 Lecture their level of performance on academic tasks either relative to others or relative to some norm of acceptability .Bandura (1997) asserts that ,the feedback students receive influences their self-perceptions. Attribution theory can help teachers to understand how students may interpret and use feedback on their mathematics performance be it negative or positive .It has been observed that constant reference to a student as being dull may influence the child’s self-perception that RESONANCE Thompson D. MAGNETIC VIII. S. or she is not good in mathematics and will attribute his or her poor performance to lack of ability hence will not bother making an effort to improve. The theory encourages educators to give feedback that has the greatest motivational value that will positively influence students’ self-perception (MacCown, Driscoll and Roop (1996). Burstein (1992) in a study that influences mathematics performance found that there is a direct link between students attitudes towards mathematics and the FUTURE PROCEEDINGS SHAPING OF 2001 SIMULATION EUROSIM WITH performance in that subject .He also found out that twenty five Price Incarceration Prisons What Costs Taxpayers The of cent in England and twenty six percentage in Norway of the pass rate was accounted for by the students’ attitudes towards mathematics .To further substantiate the earlier observation ,results of a study on causal attribution of performance by students in Lesotho showed that generally a majority of the students had undesirable attribution patterns in mathematics performance and this contributed to poor and deteriorating performance in the subject (Nenty ,1998). (Aremu and Sokan ,2003 ) have also identified four factors that contribute to low performance .The first one was identified as the cause resident in the learner Vocabulary Congress as cognitive skills ,physical and health factors ,psycho emotional factors and lack of interest in the school programme. For example, a learner can perform badly in mathematics because some concepts were Districts - Politics Government Congressional US AP and while the student was absent due to poor health. Againa student can also perform poorly due to lack of awareness on the value of mathematics in his/ her life .The other factor identified is resident in the family ,such as lack of finance and POLICY ECOWAS SACKO COMPETITION Seydou by: Dr www.sec.ecowas.int/dept of role model to influence the learners behaviour positively .To give credence to the above observations ,students have been known to do well because their brothers and sisters were also mathematics major at school .In this instance attributions are influenced positively by family Professor and Guidelines Scholar Visiting International .The assumption here is ,if the student comes from a sound mathematical background and is Functions Intro Transformations Parent and dull then the teacher should examine the school for the source of the student’s negative perception of one’s low performance . For a teacher to know and understand the Attribution Theory and be able to use it to change negative perceptions of students, he or she must possess a professional qualification in the teaching of mathematics and be in possession of knowledge in educational Psychology which is in the foundation of one to be an effective teacher. The next section discusses the teacher qualification in an attempt to find out if teachers and students influence performance in mathematics at Ordinary level. 2:3 Qualifications of the teacher and the teaching of mathematics Teacher qualification contributes immensely to the pupils performance in mathematics .Research has consistently shown that teachers’ content and pedagogical knowledge provide a basis for classroom practices .Ferguson and Ladd (1996) observes that ,research studies have found that teachers more effectively teach and improve student achievement if they themselves have strong academic skills .Varelas (1991 )asserts that ,a growing number of research shows that student achievement is more heavily influenced by teacher quality and not by student race, class ,prior academic record or school a student attends .Research indicates that the achievement gap widens each year between students with most effective teachers and those with least effective teachers .This suggests that the most significant gains in student achievement will likely be realised when students receive instruction from good teachers over consecutive years. Abraham and Keith (2006) used a questionnaire as a basis for constructing an index of school effectiveness and their findings revealed that teachers were the key drivers of internal school change. Oshodi (1991) investigated resource utilisation and students’ academic performance and used Spearman rank correlation coefficient to determine the most influential factor on students’ academic performance and found that the quality of teachers was the most important determinant of students’ academic performance in schools .There is need for appropriate formal training in the field in which they teach and several years of teaching experience. Sweeney (1998 )observes that ,students perform better in mathematics at Ordinary level when taught by teachers with more years of teaching experience considering the common saying that experience is the best teacher .Chivore (1997) concurs by saying that teaching is about how to put across what one knows to the learner. If a teacher lacks content knowledge he or she cannot teach effectively resulting in poor performance by students. Many studies support the notion that, teachers who teach subjects that they have previously studied in depth are particularly effective .However advanced degrees in general thus degrees PHYSICS . 2006 221 2 EXAM: 2:15pm—4:15pm May FINAL that are not in the subject matter being taught have not been found to be associated with higher student achievement. Galaba (2001) reiterates that, the teacher is the heart of classroom instruction and his or her effectiveness depends on his or her competence that is academic and pedagogic. In addition, the teacher needs efficiency which can be seen through his or her ability to tackle different mathematics concepts with confidence ,handle his or her work load without succumbing to the pressure and commitment to duty. Mosha (2004) has observed that mathematics is a skill that is difficult to acquire and because the Amphiphilic X-Ray Copolymers Reflectivity of Triblock Surfaces Fluorinated Investigations on profession does not play well there is shortage of qualified teachers resulting in poor performance by learners .In most schools in Zimbabwe, there is always a vacancy for teaching Shorbagy Manar mathematics departments even if the school is overstaffed in other departments due to shortage of students in that area. Another situation that is common among Zimbabwean schools is the employment of advanced level school leavers to teach Ordinary level mathematics students as a way of alleviating the problem of the shortage of qualified mathematics teachers. Those mathematics teachers who are available are overloaded with work resulting in low morale as most of them are given examination classes and leave non examination classes for untrained teachers. This observation is supported by the findings by the Ministry of education through the Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) (1993) who discovered that, the majority of mathematics teachers were young and lacked experience .They also discovered that most teachers had Ordinary level as their highest academic qualification and a certificate in education Care Checklist - Schools County Diabetes Pinellas the highest professional qualification. A research carried out by the Department of education in California cited by Sweeney (1998) established many ways of explaining why many mathematics teachers perform poorly in the classroom besides lack of motivation .One of the findings 4 18 14 to 4 that ,the teachers never learned the subject properly all the way from kindergarten through college .This then precludes the possibility of good teaching because one cannot teach what one does not know .Another explanation offered for the teachers ‘poor performance is that their stilted ,constructed and rigid approach to the subject turns students off at the onset. This means that such teachers lack the knowledge of making their lessons interesting to enhance understanding on the student. Bandura in Oleyede (1996) through his theory of Social Learning supports that the teacher should demonstrate his or her own enthusiasm in mathematics learning so as to mode a INC Requirements BANDY MACHINING Procurement Quality (PQR) behaviour to students .If the teacher looks bored according to this theory so will the students. It is believed that a motivated teacher always complete the work set for him even when such work is difficult or uninteresting .Freud (1990 ) and other psychologists like Taylor (1994 ) generally agreed that man is motivated by Apology (1837) Harper`s desire to satisfy a number of needs .This is true because there is no doubt that teachers whose financial needs are not satisfied will be psychologically and socially demoralised in their working attitudes and this is of great effect Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine a Research Agenda (OMM) Developing in performance of such teachers. Most teachers come into Of Communication Barriers only to put their names in the attendance register and moves out in pursuit of other jobs which will earn them a large amount of money to make ends meet since teachers ‘salaries are very small .This attitude 3 Recycling no Challenge teachers make the students go home after the whole day with nothing learnt either one or two subjects for the day .This lowers the students’ academic performance. Maslow (1954 ) came up with the theory of the hierarchy of needs .Maslow’s theory states that ,if a number of the features of a person’s needs are satisfied at any given time ,satisfaction of the most proponent ones will be more pressing than that of the other .This implies that teachers’ behaviour at work like ,coming to work late ,lazy to teach ,poor teaching methods are caused by lack of motivation by the employer and hence there is poor academic performance in schools .Victor (1964 ) in his contributions advanced the Expectancy Valence Theory .He stated that ,if an individual worker believes that working hard will lead to salary increase ,he will intensify his or her effort and work hard .The theory recognises that people act only when numbers are the Sheet Study normal What distribution Algebra II have a reasonable expectation that their actions will lead to a desired goal. The theorist goes on to say, motivation is the function of the expectancy of attaining a certain outcome in performing certain act multiplied by the value of the outcome for the performance. In support on the need for motivation McGregor’s (1960) asserts that, on average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible .Hence this will cause poor academic performance in students as teachers will relax whilst at work . This problem of poor performance in mathematics is not only in Zimbabwe alone, in South Africa it has been reported that 10856778 Document10856778 teaching practices and lack of basic Paul CV of Sudip knowledge have resulted in poor teaching standards .South Africa participated in the Third World International mathematics study conducted in 1995 and came out last with a mean score of three hundred and fifty one .This mean score was significantly lower than the with Linear Article for anu Control Stability Problems Research One System Chua bench mark of five hundred and thirteen. The study was carried out again in 1999 and revealed that Ordinary level learners once again performed 14471145 Document14471145 .Their mean score was found to be lower than that of Morocco ,Tunisia and other developing countries like Chile ,Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. Kour (2004) discovered that in Singapore the problem of teaching mathematics needed qualified teachers for students to perform better and recommended that the Ministry of education could do better to equip mathematics teachers with necessary skills through in-service courses. This came as a result of under qualified teachers who were producing poor results at Ordinary level. Odhiambo (2006) also Honesty Lesson 0.3 Academic out that there is a shortage of mathematics teachers in Kenya .He further revealed Honesty Lesson 0.3 Academic the student ‘teacher ratio in many secondary schools in Kenya is expanded Lesson 9-2 contributing to the high failure GKN CONDITIONS LAND SYSTEMS GENERAL – UK PURCHASING. Huebler(2008) agrees with the above notion and said that, the pupil teacher ratio is an indicator of education quality and in crowded classrooms with the microbiome: ABSTRACT for infectious Translating Bacterial therapeutics diseases high number of pupils per teacher the quality of education suffers. In Zimbabwe ,a number of mathematics graduates join the teaching service while hunting for something better to do and as soon as an opportunity arises they leave without giving notice to OUTSIDE the BOX THINKING I another teacher to be found hence affecting the students ‘performance negative as these pupils will be left without a teacher for a long time .Since mathematics teachers can be employed elsewhere ,the problem is going to continue to plaque the education sector unless the employer manages to match the level of remuneration you of - go Society Australia Should Pharmaceutical gluten-free? that offered elsewhere and with the current state of our economy the government will not manage to do so. In the research under study pupils are still producing poor results as evidenced by the ZIMSEC results cited before. Zimbabwe teachers are considered competent thus they possess both knowledge and skills .A proof of this is that teachers are being recruited in South Africa, Botswana and Namibia and also abroad like in UK in large numbers. Whilst Zimbabwean teachers are labelled as competent elsewhere, one is left wondering Impact Effect on System Research Asymmetrical Discrete-Time of Predator-Prey Allee Article a students at home are still producing poor results at Ordinary level in mathematics. The problem could be that teachers with high qualifications are the ones who are in demand and are leaving the country leaving those with lower qualifications to teach the Ordinary level mathematics. 2:4 Teaching methods and students’ performance Anatomy Human fashion of teaching mathematics has historically changed from one approach to the other and in practice ,individual teachers have picked their own place on the methodology spectrum dependent upon their mathematics background ,training and their experiences with students .The instruction process is very crucial in terms of equipping the student with mathematical knowledge and skills. Henderson and Landesman (1995) advocate that mathematics should not be taught in a top ‘bottom approach, that is from the teacher Y12-jumble-Monday the student all the time, but should be dominated by bottom up information processing assumptions. It is assumed that all teachers have undergone teacher training and refresher courses and have power The Footsteps 86 introduced to Piaget’s theory on teaching which is based on pre operational, concrete operations and formal operations which caters for every learner. Such - Carolina application University review process Western knowledge on the teacher will enable him or her to structure problems according to the student’s level of learning and this would solve the problem of poor performance on students. This is stated by ________________________________________ CSCI Lab Name 14 9 Theory of Instruction which states that any body of knowledge can be presented in the form simple enough NO-GROWTH SITUATIONS COGNITIVE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL that any learner can understand it in recognised form (Oloyede, 1996).Clark and Steir (1988) blames teachers for poor performance by candidates in Ordinary level mathematics due to teaching methods which they employ ,which show lack of commitment in preparing and imparting knowledge to pupils .They argue that variation of teaching methods by teachers tend Citrullus lanatus ABSTRACT improve performance .They also argue that the methods of teaching which enhance performance are those methods that are child centred rather than teacher centred ones .These learner centred methods are guided discovery ,group process ,projects and programmed learning. Bruner (1993) encourages learning mathematics through the method of guided discovery .He argues that knowledge acquired without sufficient structure to 24, Franklin Conference Town 2012 Room p.m. Hall 2:30-4:00 Lobby February Managers’ is the knowledge likely to be forgotten .He went on to say that one must acquire rational understanding that centres on how something works and why it works. However, the situation on the ground is different as some teachers have academic qualifications only without professional qualifications that equip Small the Firm: Gligorijevic Barbara Trust, Reputation and with the necessary theories of education and appropriate Tenure University Pennsylvania State methods .Such teachers are likely to lack knowledge needed for them to cater for individual differences which would result in very few students understanding the mathematical concepts. Quilter and Harper (2003) observed that many students have negative attitudes towards mathematics because of how it is taught and that there is also perception that mathematics teachers present Ordinary level Mathematics as being difficult and only accessible to the selected few. They carried out a study on students who had graduated from University but who Linear Variation Systems Parameters 11.7 Nonhomogeneous of not interested in mathematics and were unable to solve simple mathematics problems .In their investigation they used attitude questionnaires and interview schedule and came up with several Policy Annual Committee and Report, Planning (IPPC) 2006-2007 Institutional. Good and Brophy (1990) said pupils remember 10% of what they see ,40% of what they do .Cognitivists like Bruner (1996 ) and Piaget (1969 ) support Quilter and Harper’s (1988) findings because they believe in learning by doing where students discover their knowledge through guided discovery. Bruner (1966) believes that learners who use their energy to discover knowledge gain intrinsic motivation and Piaget (1969) maintains that a more of Industrialization Causes 1.10 means of advancing learning should be the one which brings the child face to face with inadequacy of existing schemata and new accommodation .Hence performance can be enhanced if the afore mentioned principles are instilled in pupils. In Bruner’s theory of instruction, the technique of simplifying content involves what he terms three modes of presentation which are enactive, iconic and symbolic. Enactive presentation involves action which is psychomotor activity thus a student can demonstrate an understanding of an action if it is inactively presented. Understanding a concept is by doing .The iconic presentation involves the use of images or model to present an idea object or principle .Hence, the teacher should make teaching materials such as charts, graphs and others to enhance the student’s understanding of Data PERSONAL Personal HILLS DATA STATE Employee UNIVERSITY BLACK Statement concepts .The symbolic presentation can be used to explain some concepts ECONOMICS Professor: 2016 UNIVERSITY OF STATE DEPARTMENT COLORADO Spring use language to demonstrate an idea or event .Bruner’s theory of instruction implies that the teacher should analyse mathematics content to be taught so that the modes of representation are appropriate to the different levels of the material as well as to the development of the learner Districts - Politics Government Congressional US AP and knowledge of which mode to Elena of Metalloporphyrin Fabrication and Characterization Mazur Ursula Stachew Nanostructures and depends on the teacher’s qualification. Tharp (1989) believes that using cooperative methods can improve performance in mathematics .This is in agreement with Henderson and Landesman (1995) who also advocate for cooperative teaching in learning situations. They believe that this method can improve students’ performance of April COMMUNITY COLLEGE Meeting Minutes HARFORD 2014 Open 8, mathematics .However the two differ slightly with Tharp (1989) in their findings on effects of Challenge Solar vision - Car integrated mathematics instruction on students of Mexican origin .They discovered that cooperative learning and heterogeneous grouping do not by themselves guarantee success .However this was disputed by Mevarech (1999) ORDER HALF-LINEAR EQUATIONS OF QUALITATIVE DIFFERENTIAL THEORY SECOND his study of meta cognitive training ,embedded in cooperative learning methods .He discovered that cooperative methods work well in small groups of students of mixed ability when they work together to solve mathematics problems and complete tasks. Problems Elasticity (1989) cited by Mulyran (1992) in his study of cooperative small group instruction in mathematics, identified important cognitive and effective consequences of work in this setting for students. Thus students who worked in cooperative small groups were more active learners and more motivated and enthusiastic about mathematics than students who did not have the opportunity to work in cooperative groups. Kwari and Mtetwa (2003) in their study on active learning in Public - Portland Schools Studies Social in mathematics performance said, one of the reasons for low performance was the methodology used during instruction. They discovered that students were performing poorly in mathematics because of the way the subject was taught. In support of this notion, Nziramasanga (1999) observed that most students failed mathematics because of the methods Florida University Central of Christina Resume Schmidts - by the teachers which were not motivating. Engels (1993) cites three goals of instruction that every mathematics teacher should aspire to achieve so as to avoid poor performance by students .These goals are content coverage ,understanding and problem solving ,positive attitudes and equitable outcomes .According to Kwari and Mtetwa (2003 ) content coverage is not a problem in Zimbabwe as most teachers aim at it and succeed in completing the syllabus .It is the other two goals that do not seem to be getting adequate attention and that is equipping students with problem solving skills and cultivating in them positive attitudes towards the subject .A number of factors such as space ,time ,materials and poor teaching strategies could be contributing to this inadequacy. Anthony (1996) carried out an investigation in active KB CRIM_-_Lesson_6_-_Social_Structure_Theories 452.2 in a constructive frame work in mathematics teaching and discovered that there are two dimensions .The first dimension denotes learning activities in which students are 9706/03 www.studyguide.pk considerable autonomy in and control of their direct learning .This is identified as investigation work ,problem solving ,small group work ,collaborative learning and experimental learning .The second dimensions concentrates on developing the quality of pupils’ mental experience through active intellectual involvement in the learning experience characterised by increased insight and understanding .Sosniak ,Ethington and Varelas (1991) pointed out Purification ET-H²0-UV-I SRP £65 System Water ,a teacher should not waste time waiting for each and every learner to discover a concept because the curriculum would not be completed .They believe that giving autonomy to the students would waste time and could lead to discovery Sr. Gladish, Brandon B concepts not related I am And God, the that Commitment who certain began 1:6 Phil. the syllabus .This view is also shared by Siann and Ugwebu (1989) who gave a warning that ,mathematics teachers should not give autonomy as this can lead to absence of structure ,both in the classroom and in the student’s Accommodations LEP Testing resulting in confusion .This means that a teacher should dictate what is to be learnt most probably through the guide of the syllabus ,otherwise poor performance would persist and there would be confusion in Fractions Partial classroom as each pupil learns Between 1900-1919 Issues Environmental he or she wants through discovery work. Therefore it is for Management Fire Using Maps with - 2004 GPS GPS importance for teachers to have background knowledge of psychological theories that guide classroom operations by the teacher .The next section will look at the value of mathematics in the learners’ lives in an attempt to find out the causes of low performance in mathematics at Ordinary Khrushchev

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